With more than 12 million residents in the city proper and more than 22 million in the surrounding metropolitan region, So Paulo is the most populous city in both Brazil and the Western Hemisphere. It ranks as the fourth-largest city proper in the globe in terms of population and is the most populous city proper in the Americas, the Western Hemisphere, and the Southern Hemisphere. The largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world is So Paulo. Brazil's largest city for business, banking, industry, the arts, and entertainment is Sao Paulo. The So Paulo Stock Exchange, the biggest stock exchange in Latin America, is located there, along with the headquarters of numerous Brazilian and international businesses. The city is also a significant cultural center, having theaters, museums, and concert venues. So Paulo was established in 1554 by Jesuit missionaries, making it a relatively new city. Due to its location as a significant transportation hub and its role as a significant industrial center, the city experienced remarkable growth in the 19th and 20th centuries. With attractions like Paulista Avenue, the Metropolitan Cathedral of So Paulo, and the Ibirapuera Park, So Paulo has recently grown as a prominent tourist destination.